From: John Conover <john@email.johncon.com>

Subject: ZDNet: eWEEK: Why faux Linux companies won't fly

Date: Mon, 19 Jun 2000 23:17:54 -0700

It is not exactly true that Linux stocks are *_significantly_* down, (down, maybe, but not *_significantly_*, depending on how one looks at it, of course.) Here's why. Assuming a simple model, (actually, Black-Scholes, so we can do it in our heads,) the chances that Linux stocks would be down at least as low as they are, (down about 80%, on average,) is about 10%, in any three calendar month period. The square root of the variance of the daily returns of LNUX and RHAT runs a little over 8%, (about 3 times the average for all stocks on the NASDAQ-about 1% of the stocks on the NASDAQ fall in the same range.) So, according to B-S, since the standard deviation of the drop would be expected to be about 0.08 * sqrt (60) for about 60 trading days since mid March, or about 62%, (i.e., 86% of the time, the drop would be less than 62%.) Or, it would be a 1.29 sigma chance, for 80%, or just under a 10% chance. So, since the linux stocks have been on the market for about nine months, what is the chances that we would would have seen at least an 80% drop that lasted for at least three months in those nine months? How about 1 - (1 - 0.1)^6 = 47%, (because there are 9 - 3 = 6 ways of doing something with a 90% chance of it not happening.) Quite a significant probability. Or, in rough numbers, according to Black-Scholes, (which is adequate for these short term things,) what we are seeing had about a 50/50 chance of happening, sometime in the last nine months. Note that the issue is the high variance of marginal returns, 8%. A 90% drop in a few months is very uncommon-about once in many centuries for a single stock with a variance of 2% per day, but relatively common for those running 8%. (You can work through similar logic for a "typical" stock on the NASDAQ with a variance of marginal returns of 2%, and you will find that, on the average, in a year, a stock's maximum divided by its minimum is about a factor of two-which is easy to verify, empirically; it is one of the cornerstones to the Black-Scholes concepts.) John BTW, before you run out and invest in cheap Linux stocks, it is disturbing that the Shannon Entropy, (i.e., the likelihood that a stock's price will move up on any day,) over the entire nine months is less than 50%, which means, that risk mitigation through diversification in Linux stocks would have been a disaster-a portfolio's value would have gone down *_more_* than *_any_* of the stocks in the portfolio. (For this reason, there is no reason to invest unless the Shannon Entropy is greater than 50%-but the day traders look for other things besides investment quality-they are the folks that make the variance of the marginal returns for Linux stocks three times what they should be.) http://www.zdnet.com/eweek/stories/general/0,11011,2587948,00.html -- John Conover, john@email.johncon.com, http://www.johncon.com/

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