forwarded message from

From: John Conover <>
Subject: forwarded message from
Date: Tue, 22 Oct 1996 02:52:34 -0700

------- start of forwarded message (RFC 934 encapsulation) -------

Funny how some days have better "On This Day ..."


________________________ On This Day, Oct 22 ... ________________________

1st commercial flight from mainland to Hawaii. (1936)

    This was the first transpacific passenger flight, October 21-27,
    1936, and continued on to Manila, in the Philippines, departing
    from the Pan American base at Alameda, San Francisco, arriving at
    Cavite Base in the Philippines on the 27'th. The pilot was Captain
    Edwin C. Musick, and the plane was a Martin M-130, flying boat,
    registration NC14714, (Pan Am name, "China Clipper.") The first
    ticket sold was to one R. F. Bradley, Aviation manager, Standard
    Oil, San Francisco office.

    Pan American was founded by Juan Trippe, son of a well to do
    banking family, that was trained as a pilot in WWI. Educated at
    Harvard to follow in his father's footsteps, the lure of flying
    proved stronger than the force of tradition, and in 1922, Trippe
    Capitan Edwin C. Musick is an unsung hero in the history of
    aviation. The guy had a string of firsts, the most noted is the
    first airmail flight from San Francisco to Manila on Nov. 22-29,
    1935. Born in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1894, he to would be trained
    as a pilot for WWI, and was one of the first pilots to accumulate
    10,000 hours behind the stick. In Oct., 1927 he joined Jan
    Trippe's airline, an made the inaugural airmail flight from Key
    West, Florida, to Havana Cuba. Musick pioneered new routes to the
    Caribbean and then on to South America. In 1930 Musick became
    chief pilot of Pan Am's Caribbean Division, and was in charge of
    developing the special techniques of over-ocean flying. Here the
    airline hoped to perfect the concept of a departmentalized flight
    crew, multi-engined aircraft, a meteorological service,
    communications, and flight control and maintenance. Pan Am was
    instrumental in the design and deployment of the Sikorsky S-42
    flying boat, and Musick, as chief test pilot, set more world
    aviation records than any other pilot in the world. After
    acceptance of the S-42, a plane was flown to California to start
    survey flights for the trans-Pacific flights in 1935. Musick
    pioneered the airmail flights to from California to Manila in a
    Martin 130. In March of 1937, he pioneered a new route from San
    Francisco to Honolulu, Kingman Reef, American Samoa, and New
    Zealand, (today, it is still the longest flight route in the
    world, flown non-stop by Air New Zealand.) On Jan. 11, 1938, the
    Pan Am plane "the Samoan Clipper, (NC16734, an S-42,) disappeared
    with Musick at the controls on a survey flight from Pago Pago,
    American Samoa to Auckland, New Zealand. Apparently, the clipper
    exploded in midair as the crew tried to dump fuel in an attempt to
    land at Pago Pago. Neither the plane or any survivors were
    found. A Liberty ship was christened by his widow, Cleo, in his
    name, at the Kaiser Shipyard in Richmond, California, in WWII.
    The Dec. 2, 1935 issue of Time Magazine has a cover picture of

    The M-130 was designed by the Martin Company's, (now
    Lockheed-Martin,) chief engineer, Lassiter Milbur, at the Middle
    River, Md., plant. It had a gross weight of 53,000 pounds, and the
    hull was divided into 6 water tight compartments, (a la, Titanic,)
    and was 90 feet long, and was constructed of riveted 24ST aluminum
    alloy-longitudinal stringers were not used. The wing was a high
    wing, cantilever construction, with a span was 130 feet, with a
    primary structure that was a box-girder constructed with
    semi-diagonal tensional field web beams acting as side
    members. The wing was constructed of riveted 24ST aluminum. All
    highly stressed wing fittings were constructed of chrome-moly
    steel. Stiffeners were added to the beam webs. The ailerons were
    balanced and had metal framework and fabric covering. Trailing
    edge tabs were installed on the ailerons, adjustable from the
    pilots' cockpit, to overcome any tendency toward wing
    heaviness. Power was provided by 4, Pratt & Whitney R-1830 radial,
    air-cooled, 4000 horse power engines. The cabin was not
    pressurized, but was air-conditioned.  It could carry 46
    passengers, and had berths, (a la, Singapore Airlines.)  The range
    was 4,000 miles. The control bridge was equipped with dual flight
    controls and instruments, including a Sperry Automatic Pilot.
    This plane was replaced by the Boeing B-134 in 1939.  (The B-314,
    first flown in 1939, was the largest commercial aircraft
    manufactured prior to the advent of the 747. It has a gross weight
    of just under 83,000 pounds, carrying 74 passengers in berths, a
    la Singapore Airlines.)

    Alameda, California, was Pan Am's West Coast base, and had served
    clipper service for several years prior to the 1937 flight. When
    Pan Am leased the area, it contained only a yacht basin. Terminal
    facilities were constructed, and moved to Treasure Island in 1939,
    at the request of the Navy for construction of Alameda Naval Air

    The Alameda base no longer exists. However, the Pan Am bases at
    Guam, Wake, Honolulu, Philapennes, and Hong Kong/Macao, still
    exist, although in very deteriorated condition.

Annette Funicello, actress and Mouseketeer, is born in Utica NY (1942)
Apollo 7 crew returns (1968)
Chester Carlson invents xerography (1938)

    Chester Carlson was a patent analyzer for an electric component
    maker. He was nearsighted, and had to draw, by hand, all of the
    patent documentation for his employer. He had graduated, in 1928,
    from the California Institute of Technology. He was a nerd. After
    flirting with vocations (poetry, artist, etc.,) that would allow
    him to work in seclusion, (he was not a people-person,) he settled
    on analyzing patents. He wanted to build a think tank and handle
    patents for folks, and become a commercial success by the age of
    30. It was a bad career choice in the late 1920's. Scores of
    companies rejected his application during the Great
    Depression. One that did not was AT&T-but laid him off immediately
    after hiring him. He ended up at P. R. Mallory & Company, a maker
    of capacitors, etc. He was at Mallory that he realized the need for
    a copier machine. The concept of the photocopy machine was a child
    of the Depression.

    Carlson set up shop in the kitchen of his apartment in Queens,
    N. Y. After investigating the technical journals of Eastman Kodak
    Company, he decided that wet development was not practical. He
    decided to pursue his own concept of dry reproduction based on the
    principle of photo-conductivity. The Hungarian physicist, Paul
    Selenyi, had shown how charged particles would attache themselves
    to an oppositely charged surface. Carlson decided that he could
    get dry particles to stick to a charge plate in a pattern
    corresponding to an image shining on the plate. He called this
    idea electrophotography. It was a great idea, but hard to
    implement. Over several years, Carlson concocted foul-smelling
    experiments in his apartment. The landlady's daughter, so the
    story goes, came up to see what the sulfurous source of the odors
    was and wound up marring him in 1934.

    Carlson received a patent for electrophotography in 1937. (He had
    received a Law degree in 1939, and was admitted to the bar in
    1940.) He moved his laboratory into the back of a beauty shop
    owned by his mother-and-law, and hired an assistant, one Otto
    Kornei, a German refugee physicist. He gave him ten dollars per
    month as a research budget.

    Finally, on October 22, 1938, they created a static electricity
    charge on a sulfur-coated zinc plate by rubbing it with a cotton
    cloth. Then, a piece of glass with words written on it was held
    next to the zinc plate, and exposed with light. The plate was
    dusted with lycopodium powder, (moss spores,) and then wax paper
    pressed against the powder. The wax paper was heated to the
    melting point, and peeled off. The excess powder was blown off,
    and the first dry copy in the history of commerce was made.

    But no one cared. Kornei went to IBM. IBM was not interested in
    dry copy, and neither was GE or RCA. In 1944, however, the
    Battelle Memorial Institute, gave him $3,000 for continued
    research, (and agreed to give him 40% of the profits for acting as
    his agent.) In 1945, his wife divorced him, and Battelle ran out
    of research money. And then John Dessauer got involved. Dessauer
    was the director of research for the Haloid Company. It
    manufactured photographic paper, and things were not going well
    competing against Kodak-they needed to eliminate the wet process
    used by Kodak to get a competitive edge. Haloid is now the Xerox
    Corporation. (It was a big gamble. Haloid had to front $25,000 per
    year for R&D to deploy Carlson's design-on a gross revenue of

    Taking over, Haloid decided that the product needed a better
    name. A classic language professor at Ohio State University
    suggested the name xerography, (from the Greek "xeros" for dry,
    and "graphos," for writing.) Haloid executives estimated that the
    total available market just a few thousand offices. At the time,
    that was optimistic.

    At the 1948 Optical Society of America meeting in Detroit, Haloid
    announced the first Xerox machine. No one cared. The first model
    was put on the market in 1949, and was promptly called the "ox
    box," (it required 14 manual operations to work,) and was not
    competitive with carbon paper. In addition, it was a bit pricy, at

    The 1950's produced some success. In 1955, Haloid marketed an
    automated copier, the Copyflo, (which would produce prints from
    microfilm.) It was enough success for the company to change its
    name to Haloid Xerox in 1958.

    Carlson was never an employee of Haloid, and lived in poverty off
    of royalties until 1960, when Haloid introduced the 914 copier-the
    first copier to use ordinary paper. Despite weighing 600 pounds,
    the machine was a vast commercial success. Refinements like air
    nozzles to pull single sheets of blank paper into the machine-and
    Americans added a new word to their vocabulary-toner-for the ink
    that was developed in a Rochester garage.

    In 1961 the company changed its name to Xerox. Chester Carlson
    became immensely wealthy and gave away millions of dollars to
    charities and private citizens who wrote him, (mostly
    anonymously.) He died of a heart attack in 1968 in New York City.

Chinese make first record of solar eclipse (2136 BC)
John F Kennedy announces USSR has missile bases in Cuba (1962)
The Surgeon General releases his first report on AIDS (1986)
US National debt topped $1 TRILLION (nothing to celebrate). (1981)
USSR's Venera 9 sends first photos from Venus (1975)

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John Conover,,

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